Accountability – Being obliged to answer for one’s actions, to justify what one does.

Not to be confused with responsibility. Responsibility involves the obligation to act. Accountability is the obligation to answer for the action.

Annual Budget – The total amount that the FRA is planning to spend on the purchase of goods and services during the year and the purposes for which it is to be spent.

Asset Disposal Policy – An FRA policy that has been prepared pursuant to the requirements of Section 32(1)(e) of the Fiji Road Authority Decree 2012 (No 2) viz:‘…..the statement of corporate intent shall include….an outline of FRA’s policies and procedures relating to the ….disposal of major assets’. See Section 6.8

Asian Development Bank – ‘A regional development bank established in 1966 to facilitate the economic development of countries in Asia.

From time to time the bank approves grants or loans to the FRA for road purposes. Currently the FRA is receiving from the ADB loan assistance for both flood damage repairs and new capital development.

Authority-The Fiji Roads Authority

Board-The Fiji Roads Authority’s Governing Board.

The new Board comprising a Chairman and four members was appointed by the Minister responsible for roads in 2015.

Bridge – A structure designed to carry a road or path over an obstruction such as a river or rail line by spanning it.  Includes culverts with a cross-sectional area greater than 3.4m2.

Capital Works – Includes both Renewal Capital Works and New Capital Works.

Corporate Plan – A plan required to be published by the FRA annually pursuant to Section 31 of The Decree.

The Corporate Plan has to include the information listed in section 31 (3).

Decade of Action on Road Safety        

A global programme of the United Nations on road safety initiatives.

Fiji joined the programme in 2011 and agreed a comprehensive set of targets. Those that the FRA is responsible for include the following:

  • 30 black spots improved;
  • 40kms of route action plans in place (e.g. overtaking lanes);
  • 30 village treatments completed;
  • 60 mass action plans;
  • 600km major roads marked and delineated; (and)
  • Traffic Management Plans implemented on 4 major and 6 smaller routes.

In addition, all new projects are to have road safety audits from 2012.

Deferred Maintenance – The cost of work required by the practice of allowing infrastructure to deteriorate by not carrying out required repair and renewal work at the optimum time in the asset lifecycle.

Depots – The 23 depots and 21 sub-depots inherited from the former Department of National Roads.

Some of these depots have since been leased, rented or otherwise disposed of.

Depreciated Replacement Cost (or Value)

The replacement cost of an asset less accumulated depreciation to reflect the already consumed or expired future economic benefits of the asset.

Depreciation – The wearing out, consumption or other loss of value of an asset, whether arising from use, the passage of time, or obsolescence through technological and market changes.

EXIM BANK – An ‘Export-Import’ (EXIM) financial institution owned by the Chinese Government.

The Fijian Government receives loan funding assistance for certain major capital road projects from this bank.

Goal – (Not to be confused with ‘Objective’)

A general statement defining a desired end result or a statement of intent for the direction of the business – usually long-term, not necessarily quantifiable and perhaps not totally obtainable.

The FRA has two principal goals:

  • ‘To effectively, efficiently and sustainably provide an environmentally friendly land transport network to which people are able to gain easy access and travel on safely, efficiently and comfortably to their destinations; (and)
  • To halt the deterioration trend and reduce the value of deferred maintenance and deferred renewals’.

Health and Safety Incident – An unplanned event that has resulted in, or has the potential to result in, injury, illness, damage or loss to persons or property. It includes accidents and near misses.

Jetties – The 47 Outer Island public wharves and jetties that the FRA has the responsibility to maintain and renew.       

Laboratories – The three permanent and four site (or project) laboratories owned by the FRA that provide testing services for soils, bitumen, concrete, and aggregate and carry out site investigations.

FRA intends to develop its laboratories into a single business unit and either lease or sell them within a short time.

Land Transport – In the context of this plan means the provision and management of a safe, efficient and effective network of roads, bridges and public jetties.

Levels of Service – The defined quality for a particular service against which service performance can be measured.

Service levels usually relate to quality, quantity, timeliness, reliability, responsiveness, environmental acceptability and cost.

Road agencies like the FRA typically define levels of service in terms of the roads’ reliability (how assured an intending user can be that he will be able to get to his destination within a given time no matter what day of the week it is, what time of day it is, or what the weather), convenience, and comfort of travel; how safe the roads and footpaths are to travel or walk on; and cost.

The FRA’s adopted levels of service are in Section 4 of this Corporate Plan.

Maintenance – The actions required to enable an asset to achieve its expected life.

Maintenance work can be planned or unplanned. Planned maintenance includes measures to prevent known failure modes and can be time or condition-based. Repairs are a form of unplanned maintenance to restore an asset to its previous condition after failure or damage.

Includes all of the actions necessary for retaining an asset as near as practicable to its original condition, but excludes Renewals.

Examples:  Pothole repairs. Replacing a broken deck on a bridge.  Applying protective paint.  Removing vegetation to improve driver vision. Reinstating road markings. Cleaning and clearing roadside drains and unblocking culverts. Cleaning and repairing road signs.

Mission – The reason why the organisation exists.

The FRA’s mission is ‘to provide a better land transport network for Fiji’.

Municipal Councils – The town and city councils.

There are thirteen municipal councils:

  • Ba Town Council
  • Labasa Town Council
  • Lami Town Council
  • Lautoka City Council
  • Levuka Town Council
  • Nadi Town Council
  • Nasinu Town Council
  • Nausori Town Council
  • Rakiraki Town Council
  • Savusavu Town Council
  • Sigatoka Town Council
  • Suva City Council
  • Tavua Town Council

New Capital – Expenditure that is used to create new assets, or to increase the capacity of existing assets beyond their original design capacity or service potential.

Examples: A new bridge. The work done to realign, widen and seal an existing unsealed road.

Objective (Not to be confused with Goal).

A measurable target that describes the end results that a service or programme is expected to accomplish within a given time period. Objectives flow from, are components of, and lead the FRA towards the achievement of its goals.

Every objective should be:

  • linked to a goal;
  • realistic;
  • action orientated;
  • concise;
  • attainable;
  • measurable;
  • time constrained; and
  • within the control of the FRA.

Example: (Hypothetical) Complete construction of the new Harris bridge for not more than $1.63m before 31 March 2017.

Outcomes – (Not to be confused with Outputs)

The actual impact and value of the service delivery

Example:  Less deaths because of the safety improvement work that has been done on the roads.         

Outputs – (Not to be confused with Outcomes)

The goods and services produced and provided to third parties (i.e. ‘service accomplishments’).

Examples:  The length of the roads resealed or the number of potholes repaired.  The number of safety improvements carried out.

Performance Measure – A qualitative or quantitative measure relating to the intended level of service for a particular service area.

Performance measures are the means by which the FRA is able to identify the extent to which it has been able to achieve its objectives – the means for determining whether the levels of service are actually being achieved.

There are three broad elements of performance measures:

  • Those that measure service efforts (inputs);
  • Those that measure service accomplishments (outputs and outcomes); and
  • Those that relate service efforts to service accomplishments (efficiency and cost outcomes).

Example: The number of injury and fatal accidents that occur on the roads annually.

Performance Target – The desired level of performance against a performance measure.

A specific quantifiable result (in relation to a performance measure) that the FRA is aiming to achieve.

Example: Not more than 300 serious injury accidents and 20 fatal accidents on the roads this year.

Renewals – (Not to be confused with New Capital).

The replacement or rehabilitation of an asset.

Expenditure on an existing asset which returns the service potential or the life of the asset to that which it had originally. It is periodically required expenditure, and relatively large (material) in value compared with the value of the components or sub-components of the asset being renewed. It may reduce operating and maintenance expenditure if completed at the optimum time.

Example: Resealing or rehabilitating a road – or replacing an existing bridge.

It is very important that the FRA always clearly distinguishes between New Capital expenditure and Renewals Capital expenditure.

The rate at which renewal work is being carried out over time compared with the annual provision for depreciation (the cost of consumption) is a good indicator of the extent to which the network is being maintained, improving, or is deteriorating.

Road (or Roads) – The infrastructure that the FRA is responsible for providing, managing, maintaining, renewing and developing.

It includes all land and civil infrastructure constructed by any municipal council or government body, or any other body authorised by a municipal council or government body, that is used or facilitates a public right of passage for the movement of vehicles and pedestrians, including but not limited to:

  • the vehicle pavement from kerb to kerb, or where there is no kerb, the roadside verges, drains and kerbs;
  • road signs, road marker posts and other markings, including pedestrian crossings;
  • traffic islands;
  • bridges and culverts;
  • footpaths and pavements adjacent to a vehicle pavement;
  • street lights and traffic signals;
  • parking meters;
  • jetties, and
  • all national roads, municipal roads, and such other public roads as may be determined by FRA.

Source:  Fiji Road Authority (Amendment Decree 2012 (No 46) Sec  4

Note the inclusion of jetties within this definition.

Road Network – The network of roads, streets, bridges and footpaths that the FRA has the responsibility to maintain, renew and further develop.

Roadworks Emergency – A situation declared to be the case following a major storm or other adverse event. (Not to be confused with Civil Defence Emergency)

During a roadworks emergency the normal procurement requirements don’t apply and road materials and other goods may be purchased and plant may be hired to repair the damage (in a manner and to the extent approved by the CEO).

Service Area – Those aspects of the roads that motorists and pedestrians value, or which are essential for their efficient and effective management.

The headings under which the FRA formulates its levels of service, performance measures and targets in order to be able to decide what it has to do, and to be able to subsequently ascertain how well it is doing.

The headings are:

  • Health and Safety;
  • Risk Management (other than risks that fall under the other six headings; and including Reputation and Safety);
  • Asset Provision, Preservation, and Development;
  • Environmental Conservation, Protection and Enhancement;
  • Service Quality (including Aesthetics, Reliability, Responsiveness and Capacity);
  • Compliance (including Training, Record Keeping and Reporting); and

For a fuller explanation of the FRA’s levels of service under these headings see Section 4.

Statement of Corporate Intent (SCI)

A statement required to be prepared annually by the FRA and agreed with the Minister pursuant to section 32 of The Decree.

This document is the FRA’s combined Corporate Plan and statement of Corporate Intent.

Vested Assets – Assets that are transferred to the FRA’s ownership at no cost as a condition of subdivision (or development) approval.

Instead of vesting new assets a subdivider or developer may be required to upgrade (e.g. widen) an existing road or be required to pay a sum of money to enable the FRA to fund the cost of mitigating the impact of the subdivision and or development work (or both)